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There are a number of steps involved in deciding whether damage sources such as attacks, spells and secondary damages hits or not and how much damage is done to the target.

Order of operations

The list below displays the order of operations when an attacker attempts to damage a defender:

  1. Initial damage
    Damage sources have a base damage that can be increased by various stats. Stats are only applied once per calculation.
    1. Flat damage
      • Local modifiers apply to base damage on the relevant source, for example most modifiers on weapons.
      • Added damage to attacks or spells from equipment and support gems.
    2. Damage conversion
      • Added as modifiers adds a percentage of one damage type as another damage type, for example Gain #% of Physical Damage as Extra Cold Damage during effect or You and nearby allies add #% of your Physical Damage as Cold Damage.[1]
      • Converted to modifiers changes one type of damage into another, for example #% of Cold Damage Converted to Fire Damage.[1][2]
    3. Global modifiers
      • All increased and reduced modifiers are additive.
      • All more and less modifiers are multiplicative.
      Converted damage can take benefit of bonuses for the damage type it was before and what it converted into.
    4. Critical strike roll
    5. Hits can be rolled as a critical strike which multiplies the damage by 150% by default.
  2. Preventing the hit:
    1. Evasion of attacks.[3]
    2. Dodge and Spell dodge.[3]
  3. Damage shift:
    Incoming damage can be shifted to another damage type.[4] It is usually done by utilizing an item which offers the #% of X Damage taken as Y modifier, for example: It is important to note that this is not damage conversion,[4] as shifted part of damage does not retain its original damage property so it won't get mitigated either twice or by the more favorable method. For example, if some of the incoming damage is shifted to or from physical, the after-shift value is used in the armour calculation.
  4. Damage mitigation:
    • Damage can be avoided, for example with GlitterdiscGlitterdisc
      Burnished Spiked Shield
      Quality: +20%
      Chance to Block: 26%
      Evasion: (148-161)
      Energy Shield: (79-111)
      Movement Speed: -3%
      Requires Level 27, 37 Dex, 37 Int4% chance to Dodge Attack Hits(120-140)% increased Evasion and Energy Shield
      +(20-30) to maximum Energy Shield
      +(30-50) to maximum Life
      10% increased Rarity of Items found
      25% chance to Avoid Fire Damage from Hits
      You always Ignite while Burning
      Izaro's insistence on using lava
      resulted in some surprising material discoveries.
      . Avoiding damage stops the damage of a hit. It still counts as a hit, even if it only is 0 damage.[5][6]
    • Elemental and chaos damage is mitigated by its respective resistance.
    • Physical damage is mitigated by the sum of all #% additional Physical Damage Reduction modifiers, up to its 90% cap.[7] These modifiers can be calculated from:
      • Armour, which grants damage reduction relative to how much Armour you have compared to the initial physical damage hit.
      • Other sources of flat physical damage reduction, such as:
        • Endurance charges
        • Basalt FlaskBasalt FlaskLasts 5.00 Seconds
          Consumes 40 of 60 Charges on use
          20% more Armour
          Requires Level 40Taunts nearby Enemies on useRight click to drink. Can only hold charges while in belt. Refills as you kill monsters.
  5. Damage taken:
    After damage mitigation, modifiers to damage taken are applied. Flat amounts are applied first, then the sum of all increases/reductions and lastly with more/less multipliers applied separately:[8]
    Order Modifier Examples
    1 ±# X Damage taken from Y AshrendAshrend
    Buckskin Tunic
    Quality: +20%
    Evasion: (352-387)
    Movement Speed: -3%
    Requires Level 17, 53 DexSocketed Gems are Supported by Level 10 Added Fire Damage
    (80-100)% increased Evasion Rating
    +(30-50) to maximum Life
    +(40-50)% to Fire Resistance
    Cannot be Ignited
    (10-15)% increased Physical Damage with Ranged Weapons
    -(7-5) Physical Damage taken from Attack Hits
    The blasted oak stands forever.

    Plate Vest
    Quality: +20%
    Armour: 22
    Movement Speed: -3%
    Adds 2 to 4 Physical Damage to Attacks
    +(12-20) to maximum Life
    -2 Physical Damage taken from Attack Hits
    40% of Melee Physical Damage taken reflected to Attacker
    It is safer to be feared than to be loved.

    Onyx Amulet
    Requires Level 20+(10-16) to all Attributes+(80-100) to all Attributes
    -4 Physical Damage taken from Attack Hits
    Mindless rage will shake the world,
    Cunning lies will bend it.
    Reckless haste will break the world,
    And into darkness send it.
    2 #% increased/reduced X Damage taken Shock
    VulnerabilityVulnerabilitySpell, AoE, Duration, Curse, Physical, Hex
    Level: (1-20)
    Cost: (16-33) Mana
    Cast Time: 0.50 sec
    Radius: 22
    Requires Level 24Curse all targets in an area, causing them to take increased physical damage. Attacks against the cursed enemies have a chance to inflict bleeding, and ailments inflicted on them will deal damage faster.Per 1% Quality:1Superior2Anomalous3DivergentAttacks Hits against Cursed Enemies have 0.5% chance to inflict Bleeding0.5% increased Effect of CurseAttack Hits have 0.5% chance to Maim Cursed Enemies for 4 secondsBase duration is (9-10.9) seconds
    Cursed enemies take (30-39)% increased Physical Damage
    Attacks Hits against Cursed Enemies have 20% chance to inflict Bleeding
    Ailments inflicted on Cursed Enemies deal Damage 20% Faster
    Curse gains 10 Doom per second if you Cast this Spell yourself
    +(0-10) to radius
    Place into an item socket of the right colour to gain this skill. Right click to remove from a socket.
    Vulnerability skill icon.png

    Ezomyte Burgonet
    Quality: +20%
    Armour: (761-830)
    Requires Level 60, 138 Str+(20-25) to all Attributes
    Adds 40 to 60 Physical Damage to Attacks
    +(100-125)% to Melee Critical Strike Multiplier
    (100-120)% increased Armour
    (40-50)% increased Physical Damage taken
    When you have slain all of your enemies,
    what is left to fear?
    3 #% more/less X Damage taken Fortify
    Arctic ArmourArctic ArmourSpell, Duration, Cold
    Level: (1-20)
    Reservation: 25% Mana
    Cooldown Time: 1.00 sec
    Can Store 1 Use(s)
    Cast Time: Instant
    Requires Level 16Conjures an icy barrier that chills enemies when they hit you. You drop chilled ground while moving, and take less Fire and Physical damage while stationary.Per 1% Quality:1Superior2Anomalous3Divergent1% increased Skill Effect Duration1% chance to Freeze Enemies for 350 ms when Hit0.05% less Physical Damage taken from Hits
    0.05% less Fire Damage taken from Hits
    Chill Enemy for 0.5 seconds when Hit, reducing their Action Speed by 30%
    (8-13)% less Physical Damage taken from Hits
    (8-12)% less Fire Damage taken from Hits
    Base duration is (2.5-4.4) seconds
    Buff grants Immunity to Freeze
    Place into an item socket of the right colour to gain this skill. Right click to remove from a socket.
    Arctic Armour skill icon.png

    Exquisite Leather
    Quality: +20%
    Evasion: (1548-1689)
    Movement Speed: -3%
    Requires Level 62, 170 Dex(100-120)% increased Evasion Rating
    +(60-80) to maximum Life
    +30% to Fire Resistance
    20% less Damage taken if you have not been Hit Recently
    50% increased Evasion Rating if you have been Hit Recently
    Do not hide your flaws, your cracks,
    mend them, and display them proudly.
    For it is these that set us apart.

    Infused Channelling SupportInfused Channelling SupportSupport, Channelling, Duration
    Icon: b
    Level: (1-20)
    Cost & Reservation Multiplier: 130%
    Supports any channelling skill, protecting you from damage while you channel it. Cannot support skills used by totems. Cannot support Minions that channel skills.Per 1% Quality:1Superior2Anomalous3DivergentGain Infusion after Channelling a Supported Skill for -0.02 seconds0.5% increased Effect of InfusionInfusion grants 0% of Life Regenerated per secondWhile Channelling a Supported Skill, take 8% less Damage from Hits of types matching the Skill Gem's Tags
    Supported Skills deal (15-24)% more Damage
    Gain Infusion after Channelling a Supported Skill for (1.6-1) second
    Infusion lasts 6 seconds after you finish Channelling
    Infusion grants 10% more Damage of Types matching Supported Skill Gem's tags
    This is a Support Gem. It does not grant a bonus to your character, but to skills in sockets connected to it. Place into an item socket connected to a socket containing the Active Skill Gem you wish to augment. Right click to remove from a socket.
  6. Blocking the damage:
    1. Block and Spell block.[9]
  7. Taking the final damage:
    1. Effects that change the damage to be taken from other objects 'before you', such as The Jinxed Juju[10].
    2. Effects that change the damage to be taken from other objects 'before your life or enegy shield', such as Frost Shield[10].
    3. Your Aegis (you can't have multiple aegises)[10].
    4. Guard skill buffs[10].
    5. Ward takes the damage first if it's not broken (disabled), and is then broken for a duration[11].
    6. Non-chaos damage damages energy shield protecting life until it's depleted, by default.
    7. For Mind over Matter users, #% of the remaining damage is removed from mana. Mind over Matter only applies if the damage is affecting life.
    8. Chaos damage always bypasses energy shield. This applies regardless if energy shield is protecting life or mana.
  8. Losing resources due to damage:
  9. Life loss from damage that would reduce your life below 50% while affected by Petrified Blood is prevented and a portion of that life loss is applied over time.

Damage over Time generally follows the same principle, however this damage source doesn't hit which means that it ignores evasion, damage shifts, armour and other mechanics that requires a hit. Other sources of physical damage reduction will apply as usual though. As for damage taken step, modifiers that generally affect Damage taken or Damage taken from Damage over Time will apply, but Damage taken from Hits won't.


If a damage roll is unlucky, the damage calculation will be rolled twice and the lower value will be chosen. Rolls to crit/evade/dodge/block are unchanged and only happen once.[12] This can effectively reduce damage by up to one third if the damage has a very low minimum, with the benefit decreasing rapidly: Damage with minimum at half the maximum will only be reduced by one ninth. Currently unlucky is only found on the unique ring Lori's LanternLori's Lantern
Prismatic Ring
Requires Level 30+(8-10)% to all Elemental Resistances+10% to all Elemental Resistances
(6-8)% increased Movement Speed when on Low Life
31% increased Light Radius
+(20-25)% to Chaos Resistance when on Low Life
Damage from Enemies Hitting you is Unlucky while you are on Low Life
By its light, Lori led her young charges to safety
and bound up their wounds.
Her sword arm was iron, yet her heart gentle
and proof against hate.
and the "of Miring" map suffix.


  1. 1.0 1.1 Mark_GGG (February 22, 2015). "Elemental To Physical Conversion". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved March 18, 2016.
  2. Mark_GGG (November 27, 2013). "Avatar of Fire ~ Elemental Damage Nodes". Official Path of Exile Forum. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Daniel_GGG (January 2, 2014). "reflect mechanics VS evasion,blocking,acrobatics". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Mark_GGG (September 26, 2013). "Specifics on Lightning Coil mechanics?". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved November 21, 2015.
  5. Mark_GGG (June 22, 2016). "Mechanical Questions Thread". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved June 22, 2016.
  6. Mark_GGG (June 23, 2016). "Regarding Glitterdisc". Official Path of Exile Forums Private Messages. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  7. Malice (November 14, 2011). "Mechanics thread". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  8. Mark_GGG (May 15, 2014). "defensive mechanisms activate in which order?". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
  9. Mark_GGG (May 24, 2019). "Utter trust in your defense unleashes ultimate potential.". Official Path of Exile Subreddit. Retrieved May 25, 2019.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Community Team (May 19th, 2021). "Game Mechanics Q&A Answers". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved August 6th, 2021.
  11. Mark_GGG (July 19th, 2021). "Ward as an Overlooked Defensive Mechanic - Precis of the Implications". Path of Exile subreddit. Retrieved August 3rd, 2021.
  12. Mark_GGG (May 13, 2013 4:01 AM). "p/c new ring lori's lantern". Official Path of Exile Forums. Retrieved September 22, 2013.